Professor Albert Gilg
Title: Analysis of Gemstones in Late Medieval Crowns in Europe: Late medieval crowns are among the earliest richly bejeweled objects, from which we have detailed, even gemmological descriptions of containing gem materials at that time. The gemmological analysis of such exceptional crowns must be performed under usually adverse situations, and it requires portable non-invasive and non-destructive analytical methods. However, such studies provide not only evidence for involved gem materials, but also for the provenance, gemstone cutting, enhancements, imitation materials, and later replacements the presentation. The presentation will focus on the result of such studies using microscopy, Raman, and x-ray fluorescence analysis on the Wenceslaus (or Bohemian) crown in Prague, Czech Republic, and the Crown of Blanche of Lancaster (or English Crown) hosted by Treasury of the Residence in Munich, Germany.

Raluca Anghel
Tittle: Modern era of diamonds:
A modern consumer’s love for natural diamonds requires unique storytelling as well as a strong and responsible industry supporting it. We are currently in a vital moment where the right investments need to be made. During this talk the Natural Diamond Council will share valuable insights and examples of strategies that can ensure that the epitome of luxury, natural diamonds, will reach new levels of the global market.

Dr. Lore Kiefert
Title: Fascinating spinel 
Spinel has for a long time been underrated as a gemstone. Red and pink spinel always was like the stepbrother of ruby and pink sapphire. Only in the past 10 years, spinel prices were steadily rising and are now reaching values of 50.000 USD and more. Especially since blue cobalt spinel has been found in several locations, spinel is one of the gems that is added to the “big three” and origin determination is one of the tasks a gem lab nowadays must carry out.
The presentation gives an overview of spinel properties, historical aspects, mining, and hints to find out the origin with standard and advanced testing. Treatments, synthetic spinel, and imitations are also covered.

Dr. Lore Kiefert
Tittle: History of Origin Gemstone Determination:
The origin determination of gems is probably the most difficult task a gem lab must face. Multiple factors must be considered, such as geology, chemical composition, microscopic properties, and if the gem is treated or not.
This lecture will show the beginnings of origin determination in gem labs, give the reasons why it became more and more important, shows geological and economical relationships, and points out the important steps needed nowadays to perform such tasks programs are doing it. 

Robert Weldon 
Title: How To Photograph Gems & Minerals & How AI Will Affect the Art:
There is a methodology to photographing gems and minerals successfully. In his lecture, Mr. Weldon shares his accumulated 35 years of experience to show us his tools, philosophy and techniques. In recent months, it has become increasingly apparent that AI plays an increasing role in gemological photography. Weldon will show us what to look out for, what programs are doing it, how it is being used, and how this will affect the practical and legal landscape in our business.  

Martin Steinbach
Tittle: Star Gems – A Fascinating World will introduce you to the wonderful and mesmerizing world of gems with a star phenomenon (asterism). From the ancient world of Periegetis around the first century AD to the present digital age, the four-, six-, or twelve-rayed stars have fascinated mankind.

Approximately 50 different star gems with a star in reflected light (epiasterism) or transmitted light (diasterism) are known. From the very rare star alexandrite to the common star ruby and the rare star zircon, as well as about 10 varieties with a fixed, not moving star called trapiche or trapiche-like stars. In addition to these, the presentation delves into their scientific properties, treatments, imitations, and synthetic stars. A stunning part will be the famous stars, like the Rosser Reeves Star, the Star of India, the Star of Adam and more.

Kenn Scarratt
Tittle: A passion for Pearls and Pearling (part1)
What is a pearl and how is it formed; The formation of both natural and cultured pearls are detailed along with clear definitions.
Pearl producing molluscs (natural and cultured); Greater than 50 different molluscs and the pearls they produce are described.

Kenn Scarratt
Tittle: A passion for Pearls and Pearling (part2)
A discussion on the colour appearance of natural and cultured pearls;  Acquiring and characterising natural pearls from Pinctada maxima; Several journeys to Australian waters are described and the natural peals collected. 
The term Keshi;  A clear and illustrated explanation of the term Keshi is given.
Sango pearl culturing: The production of the Sango (coral beaded) cultured pearl is described.

Rui Galopim de Carvalho
Title: Ruby: An Historical Perspective
The color red is culturally associated with powerful emotions and ruby has been historically a protagonist in that matter. Understanding the history of ruby is contingent on understanding the evolution of the term “ruby” in terminology since not all rubies in the literature are today considered as rubies, and I’m not only referring to spinel or garnets. Learning how to “read” the use of ruby in jewellery throughout the ages bears offers interesting clues into the history of it geographic sources and treatments.

Dr. Emmanuel Fritsch
Title: Why are some Minerals Gem Quality?
Why some minerals provide on occasion gem-quality crystals, whereas most crystals of the same species remain not gemmy, even in the same deposit? Many of the secrets of the gem factor are actually related to the laws of crystal growth. One needs not too many seeds, an excellent stability of the growth front, and especially “slow” growth. The combination of these three key factors leads to probably surprisingly quick growth of large gem crystals, with of course some exceptions, a few dear to gemologists, such as “gota de aceite” emerald. Besides the general rules enunciated above, the conditions necessary for gem growth vary from species to species. There is not one single recipe, but a range of possibilities to explore.

Edward Asscher Title: The confusing situation of the diamond and jewellery markets.
Edward Asscher will take you to Africa to discuss the Kimberley Process (KP) and its influence worldwide. Where does the KP stands today, what are the problems around the definition of “ conflict” diamonds.
What is the Responsible Jewellery Council doing as a standard organization and where is it going.
The influence of Lab Grown diamonds in the consumer market and the gap between wholesale and retail pricing.
The Covid Boom and Bust. The influence of Corona on the prices of rough diamonds, wehre do we stand now?.
The drastic consequences of the Ukraine war for the diamond market. What is the influence of the sanctions by the G7.
Will the G7 policies restrict supply of polished diamonds and what will it mean for the world of diamond jewellery. How do they work anyway.
Is globalization in the jewellery industry coming to an end?


Justin Prim Title: Beauty, Value, and The Power of Gemcutting. 
In this talk, gemcutter and lapidary historian Justin K Prim will present a general introduction to the process of gemcutting as well as touch on some of the superpowers of the gem cutter, like subtly
altering the color and shape through different cutting patterns.
Beginning with an overview of faceting, Justin will walk us through each stage of the cutting process and explain the role that each step plays in the gemstones final appearance and beauty. We will learn how to distinguish a well-cut stone from a poorly cut stone as well as discover how cutting can affect the gemstones final color which plays a major role in the stones final value. Finally, he will present the
art of recutting and demonstrate how value can be added to a commercially cut gemstone by recutting it into something more beautiful, more colorful, and more valuable.